New dating ranging from existence points and being heavy are offered during the Dining table dos

Analysis populace

Of 2,087 very first-12 months students exactly who underwent a standard test (pre-university) and you may finished surveys during the Health Solution Heart out of Okayama College or university from inside the , step 1,396 children volunteered to get a beneficial step three-seasons realize-up examination before graduation from inside the (follow-up rate; 66.9%). For it data, we noticed members that have a Bmi of ? twenty five.0 kilogram m ?dos because the heavy (16) . I omitted 82 members have been over weight (Bmi ? 25 kg meters ?2 ) on their baseline fitness test. In the long run, study from a single,314 pupils (676 male and you may 638 females; 65.3%) were examined. The analysis was authorized by the Stability Committee out-of Okayama College or university Graduate School out of Drug, Dental and you may Pharmaceutical Sciences (Zero. 306). Authored consent is obtained from all the users.

Testing away from obese/being obese

On all around health examination, new level and body pounds off people was measured from the university’s personal health nurses with the Tanita extra fat analyser (Design Zero. BF-220; Tanita, Tokyo, Japan). Bmi is calculated because the lbs when you look at the kilograms split by peak from inside the meters squared (23) .


People stated price from restaurants in line with anybody else, centered on certainly four qualitative classes: slow, normal, prompt, and also quick. New validity and you can reliability of one’s survey is already confirmed and you can useful for comparing relationships anywhere between mind-advertised eating rates and carrying excess fat (24) . I mutual fast and incredibly quick responses towards the a single category of food quickly and sluggish and you will typical responses with the one category of food slow (8) .

To many other life factors, solutions got from the members inside the an excellent “yes/no” style as follows: an uneven eating plan (i.e., unpredictable mealtime), bypassing breakfast, eating up to complete, apparently snacking and you will/or restaurants later in the day, seem to drinking unhealthy fats, frequently restaurants green vegetables, apparently dinner processed foods, seem to dinner sweets, apparently consuming (sugar-sweetened) carbonated drinks, normal physical working out, and chronic drinking (sixteen, 20) . New questionnaire are used within baseline.

Mathematical studies

Paired t, unpaired t, Fisher’s exact, and chi-squared tests were used to determine whether there were any significant differences between baseline and re-examination, or normal weight and overweight groups. Using a logistic regression model, both odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Being overweight at the 3-year follow-up was used as a dependent variable. Gender, eating quickly, and frequently consuming fatty foods at baseline were added as independent variables on multivariate analysis according to the guidelines of a previous study (25) . All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (21.0J for Windows; SPSS Japan, Tokyo, Japan). A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.


There were no significant differences in prevalence of eating quickly and body composition at baseline between participants who were followed up and those who were not (data not shown). Table 1 shows the characteristics of participants. Overall, 207 male (30.2%) and 198 female (31.0%) participants reported eating quickly. Of the 38 participants (2.9%) who became overweight, none were obese (BMI ? 30 kg m ?2 ). There was a significant difference in body composition between baseline and re-examination data (P < 0.05).

  • an indicate ± standard deviation.
  • bP < 0.05, paired t test. Baseline vs. after 3 years.
  • cP < 0.05, ? 2 test.
  • dn (%).

In both male and female participants, a higher prevalence of those who ate quickly was observed in the overweight group compared with the normal weight group (P < 0.05). The prevalence of participants who ate quickly and frequently consumed fatty foods was significantly higher in the overweight group than in the normal weight group (P < 0.05).

  • an enthusiastic (%).